Give Correct Exposure to your pictures

Before giving the correct exposure to your pictures it is important to know what a correctly exposed image looks like. A correctly exposed digital picture is a file that shows a full range of tones, from deep shadows to bright highlights, with details across the entire image and all the tones.

One should be able to see some detail in the dark shadow areas while at the same time retaining detail in the brighter highlight areas. Providing you get this, you can decide later whether you actually want the full tonal range to appear when you print/publish the image or not. If you could not ensure that you have the full tonal range while shooting, there is little you can do about it later in some photo editing software.

The picture with the shadows can be fine-tuned to great extent but once if the picture with more highlights or burns the details can’t be recovered from the same.

This last point is more crucial when shooting in JPEG format. When shooting in RAW mode, getting the right exposure is a more easier process than it is when you shoot color negative film because you can correct the color in your computer later.

If you shoots RAW then it’s easy for your to correct the image’s White Balance, Brightness, Contrast, Sharpness, Color Balance, Exposure and many more parameters. Whereas JPEG gives less freedom to play with all the above parameters.

Now, we will explain some terms being used in photography & you will need to know. Then we can learn in greater detail about each one.

Exposure is the amount of light, controlled by aperture and shutter speed, that reaches the image sensor. Now ISO is also added to control the sensitivity of light.

Shutter Speeds is the measure of the duration or length of time that the shutter stays open. The longer the shutter stays open, the more light will be allowed to reach the image sensor.

Faster shutter speeds freeze the action and usually require more light and a larger aperture (smaller f-stop number).

Slower shutter speeds enable pictures to be taken in lower light with a smaller aperture (larger f-stop number).

Aperture or F-stops are the measure of the size of the opening, or aperture, in the lens. Remember, the larger the f-stop number, the smaller the aperture and lesser light to the sensor.

The smaller the f-stop number, the larger the aperture and the more light the lens will let through to the image sensor.

ISO – Camera Sensor Sensitivity. Earlier in the negative film the term ASA(American Standards Association) was used which was changed to ISO(International Organization for Standardization) later in 1987.

ISO helps camera image sensor to become more sensitive to light with increasing ISO range. Usually it starts from 100 and go up to 12,800. But now a days in some high end Cameras it starts from as low as 50 and can go upto 3million, which is required and helpful for low light conditions only. Generally a photographer uses from 100-1600 ISO range only.

One more fact to add is, the lower the ISO the better the quality of photograph in terms of noise and details. And higher the ISO the more will be the noise in the photographs with less amount of fine details.

So, keep on experimenting and improve your photography. If you like the post then follow us on Instagram, Twitter, Facebook.

Top Free Photo Editing Apps

Being a photographer you need some mobile applications which can provide you the freedom of editing like a professional. Earlier it was only possible in a professional computers with pro level editing software which were paid. But now with changing time and improving technology, the professional grade editing of images is possible on your mobile phone and without even spending a single penny. Yes, the apps which we are going to discuss about are free to download and use. There might be some in-app purchases which hardly require. So, there is the details about the apps you need and can use as per your requirements.

Snapseed By Google LLC

Snapseed is a totally free app with very pro level editing tools, including every parameter from brightness/contrast to levels and HDR scape. Snapseed provides a number of presets also. We can adjust depth of field, perspective and even canvas size of any image. There are a lot of tutorials within the app with which you can learn a lot and can apply the same option to other photos as well. You can Open/Edit one photo at a time. Once the changes you have saved that can not be undone if you have closed the image or clicked done. Snapseed provides a very unique feature of masking with any adjustment layer you want to apply on. Snapseed itself is a complete package for professional grade editing in your mobile phone and its totally free.

Android Snapseed will edit DNG RAW files on any device that can capture DNG, And iOS Snapseed will edit RAW files from a no. of devices.

This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

Adobe Photoshop Express by Adobe

Adobe Photoshop Express:Photo Editor Collage Maker is again a totally free app which provide all the professional grade photo editing tools. Photoshop Express delivers a full spectrum of tools and effects at your fingertips. Personalize your experiences with sticker makers, enhance color gradients and imagery, create pic collages, generate memes, make quick fixes and heighten your share-worthy moments. Features like Perspective Correction, Noise Reduction, Blur, Customize images with the sticker maker, create memes and captions, style your text with a wide array of fonts and layouts, add borders and frames, and stamp creations with custom watermarks. Dehaze pictures to remove fog in a scene, apply dramatic filters for pictures, and easily slide to adjust color temperature, vibrance and other color effects. Making picture collages, spot healing and automatically adjust contrast, exposure and more with one-touch adjustments; easily crop, straighten, rotate for eye-catching layouts, and magically remove red-eye and pet-eye from your favorite moments.
Upload images from multiple sources and formats (including raw and TIFF), posting your favorites directly to Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Flickr and other social platforms or share them in email, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, and Line to inspire others.

This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

PicsArt Photo Editor by PicsArt

PicsArt Photo Editor is home to the hugely popular sketch effect, glitch effect, vintage filters, aesthetic stickers, and more. AND it’s FREE (In-app Purchase or Upgrade option available)
Show off your awesome pictures on Instagram with #picsart and you might be featured!

Provides amazing tools for cropping, stretching, and cloning. A full library of artistic photo filters (including HDR), frames, backgrounds, and borders. Use brush mode for fine-tuning and make double exposures using layers with adjustable transparency. 100+ fonts. Some of our coolest photo features are now enabled for video. Bring your unique story to life by adding fun filters and stickers, then adjusting the size for social media. No professional experience required!
Take any selfie and create a sketch that looks hand drawn.
PicsArt’s Gold subscription gives you access to many more premium stickers, fonts, frames, collages and masks. PicsArt’s Cutout Tool lets you create and share custom Stickers out of any picture. PicsArt Draw includes customizable brushes, layers, and professional drawing tools.
PicsArt’s Challenges are fun and easy! New challenges, added daily, are a great way to find inspiration.

This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

by 123rf Limited

Pixlr (formerly Pixlr Express) is a free and easy photo editor. No account creation required, just download and start editing.
Show your awesome edits, #madewithpixlr for a chance to be featured on Instagram.
Create photo collages, adjust the color, make pencil sketch, poster, watercolor and more. Double Exposure to create an array of effects easily with layers and adjustable transparency. Remove blemishes, red-eye, smoothen skin, or whiten teeth with simple tools. Adjust the tone of the photo with overlays – amplify the tone, cool it down, or add surreal shades. Add text to your photos with a variety of fonts, choose borders. Keep track of your favourite effects and overlays with the favourite button. Crop and resize images quickly and easily before saving.
This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

by Everimaging Limited

Fotor is an all-in-one photo editing and image licensing platform where amateur and professional photographers can monetize on their shots through Fotor “Events”. Gain exposure and be rewarded with Events, introducing weekly photo contests hosted by Fotor. Fotor allows the enthusiast of all levels the opportunity to win prizes, profits and fame.

Fotor photo editor enables an easy-to-use while professional image processing experience. A massive range of updated Photo effects and filters, allowing you to simulate an almost unlimited number of styles, including: Film, Vintage, B&W, Kaleidoscope, etc. Up to 10 completely customizable ‘Edit’ functions, Fotor photo editor allows you to all forms of editing, from minute ‘touch ups’ to extensive images changes. The ‘Enhance’ function, complete with ‘slide on screen’ capability, allows for rapid adjustments in in details and gradation. Different photo collage template styles such as Classic & Magazine collage templates, making your images into art by collage way. Regular updates for stickers, borders for pictures, photo stitch, photo frames, photo filters and fonts will ensure a fresh new design for every day.

Licensing your photos to PxBee which is a stock photo marketplace connecting the creative community of Fotor. Join PxBee and start making money through your photos. Providing breathtaking photographs, licensed for use in multiple projects such as web design, printed materials and commercial displays.
This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

Photo Editor Pro
by InShot Inc.

Photo Editor Pro offers everything you want to edit pictures. A host of stylish effects, filters, grids and draw tools help you create an eye-catcher, even if you’ve never edited a photo before. With Photo Editor Pro, you can directly post your artworks to Instagram, Whatsapp, Facebook etc. Filters like Lomo, PINK, Vignette, Natural, Warm, Dew, Dark, CocoaAdjust brightness, contrast, saturation, hue, warmth etc. Glitch Effects & Blur Background, Photo Blender & Light FX, Body Retouch, Photo Collage Maker, Highlight and shadow, and many more to edit. This is a complete package of editing tools you can play with. So download and start editing and sharing some wonderful edits.

This app is available for Android Only.

Photo Editor, Filters & Effects, Presets – Lumii
by InShot Inc.

Lumii, as a powerful photo editor pro, values simplicity and practicality the most. Just simple and fast touches, you can create artistic high quality works without any professional skills. It offers all the advanced photo editor tools and amazing preset photo filters and photo effects to edit pictures, enhance images. No matter you are a newbie or pro, Lumii will be your best edit pictures app among plenty of similar photo maker and presets apps. Apply perfect presets for Instagram and filters for pictures to fill your aesthetic needs. Lumii is Free and all-in-one Photo Editor App.

Lumii features Customize Photo Filters, Customize Photo Effects – such as Glitch, Light Leak, Double Exposure, adjustment for photo effects strength, HSL Color Mode, supports 8 colors channels, Powerful curves tools.

Adjust brightness, contrast, highlights, warmth, shadows, sharpness, exposure, image enhancement, crop photo freely (in multi aspect ratios), add text on photo. Lumii helps you become an expert in photo editing, especially in photo filters and effects adjustment, and discover endless fun during the time. The app is available for Android only.

This was all about free pro level photo editing app, We hope this helps you a lot to choose the perfect image editing app that suits your style. These are not fancy apps, these provide all the tools which are very useful for photographers.

If you like the information then follow our blog and comment for your choice of topic in the comment box. Follow us on Instagram.


Change the Perspective

The above image is taken with a normal lens, so the view is as we see with our eyes.


The control of perspective is the ability to use your camera and lenses to control the relationship between the foreground and the background of your pictures. So it’s your call that what lens or focal to use while shooting at work. We will elaborate that what lens or focal length has what effect in the perspective of your photographs. There are the facts you can experiment to confirm or just rely on these facts to get some stunning photos.

When you’re using a wide-angle lens, the background appears much farther away from your subject than it actually is.

With a normal lens, the background appears the same distance away as it does with the naked eye.

When using a telephoto lens, the background appears closer.

The viewing angle of a wide angle lens is on higher side than that of a normal or telephoto lens where the angle of view is much less. This means that with a wide-angle lens, you can sometimes surprise yourself with how much you’ve included in your picture. On the other hand, using a telephoto lens, your subject is more prominent and less of the background is included within your frame.

So, by varying your lenses or the focal length, and therefore your perspective, you can use the background to be more prominent in your pictures or isolate your subject as you require.

One very interesting experiment you can perform by shooting a variety of pictures of the same subject with different focal length lenses to help you understand how different focal lengths affect perspective. Remember to move backward and forward in relation to your subject to keep it the same size in all the frames and at all the different focal lengths.

Do the experiment and Follow us on Instagram.

Digital Photography Workflow

Digital Photography Workflow

  1. Capturing
  2. Storing and Organizing
  3. Editing
  4. Sharing/Showcasing/Portfolio
  5. Deleting & Backing Up

Capturing photograph is the first step of digital workflow which includes checking your camera body, lens, battery, memory card status and make it ready to shoot your project. All settings should also be checked before capturing images. In digital era this step is very easy and convenient to people as one can see the result immediately after capturing the photo and can take more and more shots without worrying about the card capacity as compared to analogue era which limits a roll film to 36 shots at max.

Storing and organizing comes second which ensures the transfer of the images to a permanent storage or your computer. You should organize your photos in a better way so that you can easily find them when needed. So one can simply copy the images in a single folder and later those folders can be numbered with name so that the sequence will remain the same and you will probably known to the events you captured and when. This type of organizing photos is the simplest you can do easily without making much efforts. Its just copying your photos to the PC in a organized way. This is the way for professionals or non-professionals too.

Editing comes after storing your photographs you need to have a look on your work so that you can edit or prepare your digital photographs to share or showcase as per need. whether to give it for print or to share it on digital platforms.

So, in this context you need to first choose a software which is convenient for you and which is meets your expectations too. You are to make search for this, but the best is Adobe Photoshop & Adobe Lightroom. Canon users can go with Canon’s Digital Photo Professional for camera control and RAW image support. Same for Nikon user can go with NX2 and many more as per their respective brands.

Sharing/Showcasing/Portfolio So after editing your images you need to share your images on an appropriate platform as per your convenience. That could be your Social Media account or your professional media account or it could be your own website or any other professional group where you can showcase your work in your desired manner. There are many platforms can be used by you. Some are given below.

  • Facebook/Instagram/tumblr/tiktok/snapchat – for Social Media
  • LinkedIn/Fiverr/your website – For your professional work showcase
  • 500px/dreamstime/adobe stock/viewbug – for stock photos

This is just an example you can hunt for more as per your needs.

Delete & Backup the last and the most important part of photography, i.e. you need to delete the accidental or the unnecessary images and backup the good one which you a require in future. As in the digital era as there are more chances of losing data, so, you should backup on at-least 2 devices if possible.

Not all photos are good or to use. So keeping this in mind and to have space for our new projects we should keep on deleting the unwanted or accidental photos first and then we should backup the best photos to make make it ready for Stock.

The Analogue Camera

The analogue camera have a win point over digital era as the negatives have a very long life and the positives can be reproduced at any time from even a 100 year old negative as there are proofs of capability of very old negatives to produce a positive with good amount of details in photos.

Digital Photography

The last century proved to be the revolution of photography and has changed the whole concept of recording an image onto a medium. As a matter of fact, this change is not an isolated change but it was a part of a great breakthrough that is, converting of the conventional analogue information into digital information which is represented by the binary system of ones and zeros or what is known as bits. This fundamental shift in technology has completely redefined and improved the quality and usability of the visual information. A conventional camera records the image on a film and depends entirely on chemical and mechanical processes, a digital camera records images electronically with the help of light sensors CMOS/CCD. The process of photography which was process and combination of optics and chemistry has now become a combination of optics and mathematics. Digital images can be viewed stored and manipulated on computer. This opens a vast spectrum of possibilities in all area, from media and entertainment to pure scientific research, from military uses to weather forecasting, from fashion to advertising, so much so that the proliferation of the digital cameras into mobile phones has given the ordinary street-walker the power of photography.

CMOS/CCD – These both type of sensors captures the light and convert it to digital data which is then recorded by camera. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) is a technology for constructing low power integrated circuits along with high speed which is very much useful in digital camera sensors. CMOS technology is used in various digital logic circuits. Charged Coupled Devices(CCD) are the sensors used in digital cameras to record photo and videos. The basic difference is their mechanism. Performance and speed of both the technologies is remarkable but CMOS are preferred for Camera and CCD are preferred for all the imaging devices eg. copier, scanners etc.

CMOS, costs are lowered because CMOS image sensors can have the processing circuits on the same chips, while the CCD’s have their processing circuits on separate chips.

Image Sensors. It may surprise you but the image sensors capture only the brightness, not the colour. These record the greyscale – range of colour shades between pure white to pure black. It is the camera processor which creates a colour image shown to you by additive colour method, as every pixel have RGB filters on the photosites in pattern.

Digital Image Formats

JPEG – This is named after its developer, the Joint Photographic Experts Group. This is basically compressed image file format of RAW data file.

RAW – This is the data file which contains each and every captured detail in it. “RAW” is the “negative” of the previous era as we can make some corrections without the loss of data will result in better output than a JPEG.

DNG – Digital Negative. As the growing digital era there are over 170 raw file formats now which every camera company is making for every new camera. So, Adobe tried to gave a solution to the problem, a new format the Digital Negative(DNG). So if your RAW files are not opening in a software then you can convert them to DNG and then they can be opened in Photoshop or Lightroom.

TIFF – Tagged Image File Format. There file are larger than JPEG or Raw file formats as these files can carry more data as can handle 8bit or ever 16 bit Colour data profiles. These can be open in any application as simple as Paint.

Storage Devices

We will explain only three type of devices which are in trend now.

  1. SD Cards – These are the most preferred and the most used devices in most of the electronic cameras now a days. These available with different names and for different devices. eg. Micro SD, SDHC, SDXC etc. These are water proof & X-ray proof.
CF Card(Left) & SD Card(Right)

2. CF Cards – Compact Flash Cards are delivering a very high speed data transfer and have good life also. These are found in some professional grade cameras only.

SSD & 2.5″ HDD

HDD – Hard Disk Drive. These are devices most commonly used to store our data. These available as internal HDDs and External Portable HDDs. One more advanced form of Hard drives is also available now i.e. SSD – Solid State Drives, these are water proof, shock proof, X-ray proof unlike SD cards but are more durable and solid than SD cards. These are now priced high but as the technology develops these will also be available with an affordable price tag.

Digital Workflow

  1. Capturing
  2. Storing and Organizing
  3. Editing
  4. Sharing/Showcasing/Portfolio
  5. Deleting & Backing Up

Capturing photograph is the first step of digital workflow which includes checking your camera body, lens, battery, memory card status and make it ready to shoot your project. All settings should also be checked before capturing images.

Storing and organizing comes second which ensures the transfer of the images to a permanent storage or your computer. You should organize your photos in a better way so that you can easily find them when needed.

Editing comes after storing your photographs you need to have a look on your work so that you can edit or prepare your digital photographs to share or showcase as per need. whether to give it for print or to share it on digital platforms.

Sharing/Showcasing/Portfolio So after editing your images you need to share your images on an appropriate platform as per your convenience. That could be your Social Media account or your professional media account or it could be your own website or any other professional group where you can showcase your work in your desired manner.

Delete & Backup the last and the most important part of photography, i.e. you need to delete the accidental or the unnecessary images and backup the good one which you a require in future. As in the digital era as there are more chances of losing data, so, you should backup on at-least 2 devices if possible.

The Analogue Camera have a win point over digital era as the negatives have a very long life and the positives can be reproduced at any time from even a 100 year old negative as there are proofs of capability of very old negatives to produce a positive with good amount of details in that.


Do you need more about Digital Workflow or any other topic, kindly comment.

DSLR – Choose your camera & Lens

The very first thing we came to know from the Master’s of Photography is that “The Camera is just a device, the image is in the mind behind the camera”.

So, the vision of a photographer is the most important thing. No matter which camera you own, you just need to work and master the basics of photography. Now we will give you an insight that what camera specifications you should keep in mind while choosing your camera.

The first thing you are clear about is what kind photography do you do? Are you more than a amateur or just starting off. So, we will discuss this in detail so that one can choose his or her camera to shoot stunning images.

If you are just starting off or an amateur you can pick any basic version of DLSR from your favourite brand along with one normal lens i.e. 50mm with widest possible aperture under your budget. Don’t be misguided by company’s megapixel or their lens combo offers. Purchase the things which suits your budget and fulfilling your requirement or need.

The crop sensor cameras work fine for any genre or if you are not sure what type of photography will you do in future. After known to your style and genre of your photography you can change or upgrade your camera and lens as per your need. Even then if you sure then some focal length are fit for the following genre.

14mm to 24mm – Ultra wide angle coverage, suitable for shooting venues, landscapes, skyscapes or seascapes.

24mm to 35mm – Wide angle coverage, perfect for shooting streets or some landscapes also with showing less area than ultra wide angle lens.

50mm – Normal lens equivalent to human eye. suitable for any work you want or just say the perfect prime lens to start with.

85mm to 100mm – Narrow angle of view and this focal length is perfect for capturing Portraits.

100mm to 200mm – Very Narrow viewing angle and is now in trend for Candid Photography, Portrait Photography, Event Photography and by journalists as well.

More than 200mm – The focal length is usually useful for wildlife photographer or astronomical photographers only.

Note: For the Crop Sensor cameras there is a Crop Factor provided in the instruction manual for every camera, Is we are using a full frame camera lens on a crop frame camera body, then we are to multiply the focal length with the crop factor to get the working focal length of that particular lens.

Example – Body Canon 3000D and Lens is Canon EF 24-105, F/4

crop factor = 1.6x so, the 24-105mm EF lens will work as 38-170mm lens of Canon 3000D or Canon 1100D, 1200D, 1300D, 200D, 750D etc.

You need High resolution image producing camera or a full frame camera when you require details more than the usual work. eg. in product photography you need more details so you need very fine lens and a high resolution camera body. Same applies to the Fashion photography & Commercial Advertising Projects.


Looking for your queries.

Image Credits : Featured Photo by Lilly Rum on Unsplash

Transition from Analogue to Digital Era

A way long, the whole concept of photography has changed drastically. The whole system of negative roll has been taken over by the digital era. Here we will discuss about what has changed and what not.

Starting with the concept of photography, the basics are still the same. The whole photography techniques moved around the Aperture, Shutter and ISO. The things which changed from analogue to digital is the medium at which the photo is being captured i.e Negative rolls or Glass Plates to Electronic Sensors.

Earlier the Negatives of different size were available so as CMOS sensor now. Very common size of negative used and familiar to the general public is 35mm(24x36mm) negative film and the maximum size available known to professionals only were “20inches x 24 inches”, In between there were many different size of negatives available in past – 4x4cm, 4x6cm also called 120mm film, 5x7inches glass plates.

Now, for the same work DSLR Camera or any electronic camera have CCD/CMOS Sensors on which the image is captured. These sensors are also of different sizes and consists of a smaller unit called pixels, the more the pixels the more will be the details in the photograph. Each Pixel is made up of 3 color bars – Red, Green, Blue.

The Camera which have a sensor size equivalent to 35mm is categorised as a Full Frame Camera, and the camera those have a sensor size less than a full frame is known as Crop Frame Camera. There are 100s of camera models available from different brands with Crop Frame Sensor. There are limited no. of Full Frame Cameras which are now ruling the market from different brands. The Full frame camera comes under the Professional camera from each brand and are most used for photography purpose. There are now hybrid camera available in the market which offer both the operations of making video and capturing photos with professional settings and output.

The Electronic sensor available of maximum size in some commercial camera is 8×10 inch in LargeSense LS911 Camera.

Focussing System

The Focussing system has also been changed from manual to very fast & automatic. Earlier the focus and aperture settings were manually set from the different rings present on lens. Now the whole focussing system is converted to electronic and automatic system which gave a revolution in photography by giving birth to so many categories of photography specially where fast focus was necessary eg. sports photography, Wildlife photography. With Fast and Automatic focus system we are now able to capture any subject with more precise focus results in more sharp and detailed images.

Although the 35mm negative film was having a resolution equivalent to approx 40 megapixels of electronic image. So the details we also good in the analogue photography also, the only thing changed is lens are now more precise and fast.

Image stabilization

With the electronic era one more concept came into trend i.e. Image Stabilization/Vibration Reduction. This is the method through which the camera shake can be adjusted upto an extent. Now some lens are able to handle that upto 5stops Image Stablilization which means with this option if you are are to shoot a picture at a SS-1/2000 then you are now able to click the same with image stabilization ON at SS-1/60 also, the image will not have a shake in the final result. The Image Stabilization works for the Camera shake reduction not for the subject movement blurs or shakes. Most of the Zoom Lens coming into the market are generally having at least 1 or 2 stop of image stabilization.


Earlier in analogue photography cameras the widest available aperture was 2.5 or nearby, but now a days in the electronic era, there are lens available in the market with an aperture of 1.1 as well.

Speed of Camera

The image taking capability of the cameras has drastically changed as of now the DSLR camera can shoot photos at upto 20 frames per second or more on continuously shooting the images.

So, this was all about the differences came in the equipments from Analogue to Digital Era. There is a lot more in detail.

For your queried you can ask your questions and follow/subscribe the blog to stay updated about the latest posts.


Types of Lens

First of all we will understand the concept of focal length of a lens. Focal Length is the distance between the focal plane(Image Sensor) & focal point of lens.

Lower the focal length = more area captured by lens

Higher focal length = less area captured by lens

On the basis of viewing angle there are three types of lenses

Normal lens = 50mm (equivalent to normal human eye)

Wide Lens = any focal length less than 50mm. e.g. 14mm, 24mm, 35mm etc

Tele Lens = any focal length greater than 50mm. e.g. 85mm, 100mm, 135mm, 1200mm and more

On the basis of working of lens these are categorised into two types. Zoom Lens And Prime lens.

Zoom Lens

Nikon 70-200mm lens
Canon 18-55 lens

Zoom Lens are the lens which have a “range” of focal length. These lens covers a variety of focal length and image can be zoomed in or out before capturing. These lens gives freedom to the photographer to capture at any available focal length without moving from his place. These are further divided into three classes. Wide to Wide, Wide to Tele and Tele to Tele.

Wide to wide zoom lens cover both the focal length in wide angle segment only. These lens are best suitable for shooting Landscapes or wherever we need a wide angle view. e.g. Canon 17-40mm(Full Frame), Canon 10-18mm(Crop Frame), 18-55mm(Crop Frame), Nikon 16-35mm and many more.

Wide to Tele zoom lens are very useful and popular ones because they give complete ease to shoot daily life images or covers almost the need of all photographers genre(Wedding, Portraits, Landscapes, Journalism etc.). These lens have a range from wide to tele angle. eg. Nikon 18-200mm, Canon 24-105mm, Nikon 24-120mm etc.

Tele to Tele zoom lens are useful in wildlife photography and astronomical photography only. These are a bit expensive lens and are used by professionals usually. eg. Canon 100-400mm, Tamron 150-600mm, Nikon 70-300mm etc. Some with lower tele focal lengths are used for Portraits, Journalism, Event photography also. eg. 70-200mm is very popular lens from various brands. and other are 55-250mm, 55-200mm.

Prime lens

Prime lens are the lenses which have a fix focal length. the most commonly used prime lens is 50mm f1.8. This is the best lens to start with. This lens is available from most of the brands in the market. The cheapest one is available from a Camera brand is Canon 50mm 1.8 rest all the camera manufacturing brands provides the 50mm 1.8 of their brand is priced high than the later. Some more cheaper one are also available form third party lens brand. There is no compromise in the quality of these lens from several brands but the only thing make them low priced or high priced is the no. of consumers for a particular brand. There and wide and tele prime lenses are also available in the market. eg. nikon 20mm, 25mm, Canon 14mm, 24mm, 35mm, 100mm, 135mm, 800mm and 1200mm. Any of the prime lens does not have any zoom function. These lenses are fast focussing lens. Their result in terms of quality and depth are also better than the zoom lens.

Canon 50mm 1.4

There are two special type of prime lens which we will discuss about are Fish-Eye lens and Tilt-Shift lens.

Fish-eye lens named so because their front element look like a fish eye and these covers an angle of around 180 deg like a fish eye. These are also called the ultra-wide angle lens. eg. Canon 15mm. Most of these are prime lenses, but some brand have zoom function in these lens also. eg. Canon 8-15mm,

Canon 8-15mm Zoom Fish Eye Lens

Tilt-shift lens are very useful in product photography, Archival Photography, Corporate Building Shoots etc. as they can avoid the reflections coming into/from the glossy surfaces of the products and can change the perspective of a monument or building. These lens changes the view of upto 8-9 degree angle which is sufficient enough to avoid the reflections and shoot the desired image. eg. Canon 17mm, 50mm, 90mm etc.

Canon Range of Tilt-shift Prime lens

However, the things which make prime lens better than any other lens are fast focussing system, better photo quality, better depth of field control and mainly the Aperture. Wider the Aperture opening better the lens as it allow more light to come in, better for low light conditions. So, one before purchasing a Prime lens should go for the lowest f/no. lens fits into budget.

Looking forward for your queries…

Types of Camera – Digital

There are various types of digital camera we found in the digital era. We tried to cover all the possible categories of the digital camera available in the market now.

Compact Digital Camera

This category consists a lot of camera forms. These are the cheapest camera available in the market. Digital compacts camera are very pocket friendly cameras and used widely by the hobbyists and amateurs. These camera have many other forms as well. Our Mobile phone Camera is an example of compact or point & shoot camera system. Although now a days the Mobile phones are having more advanced camera system than a digital compact camera. Moreover, all the small water proof and action camera are also an example of Compact Digital Camera System which are now having a lot of customized settings electronically not mechanically.

Bridge Camera is also a type of compact digital camera system with a lot more manual settings and a very high Optical zoom system. These camera look like a DSLR but do not have the capability of inter-changeable lens system.

All the tiny spy camera are also in the category of Digital Compact camera.

Mirror-less Interchangeable Lens Cameras

Basically these camera are the advanced form of point and shoot camera but with the professional interface and settings. These camera are Cost reductive forms of DSLR camera system. These are cost effective for Manufacturers only but are expensive for consumers having some pros and cons over DSLR system and are now trending the market for some more time. Because the DSLR system have more advantages over mirror-less system. These camera have less battery life as they consume battery for every function(electronic viewfinders – consume a lot of battery, a person can’t even see the optical view unlike DSLR’s view finder)whereas the DSLR are saving a lot of battery due to optical view finders, and DSLR gives more power to capture more on a single charge (Gives upto 1000 shot per charged battery).

DSLR – Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera

DSLR as their name suggests these are the camera like SLR system cameras, just addition of word “digital” is here. Unlike SLR camera, all other functions will remain same only the traditional film is replaced by Electronic sensor on which image is being captured and processed in camera to show a final result immediately on an LCD on the back of the camera. These are a bit expensive camera but having so many qualities also. DSLR gives freedom to change the Lenses as per need and a variety of lens are available in the market to suits an individuals requirements. DSLR gives High quality images. These shoot two forms of file system – JPEG (Compressed file) & RAW/.CR2 (A complete data file with maximum details possible – can be customised a lot in post processing like the traditional photography post processed in Dark room)

DSLR gave a revolution in the field of photography as the results can be seen on the spot of capturing an image, so these camera gave freedom of experimenting with the same frame and same composition in the field only. With all the benefits these camera gave birth to a huge data files which again results into more expenses of managing data files. But still this is the most accepted camera system by professionals and now a days by the hobbyists also as the Entry level DSLR are available in the market under US$ 400 or INR 30K with 2 lens combinations. The professional DSLR cost starting from 1.5 lakhs to upto 8 lakhs.

Medium Format Camera

Brands like Mamiya, Leica, Hasselblad, Horseman, Pentax, Fuji make these format camera and are totally used for commercial purpose only. Big ad agencies and corporates have these camera because of their work profile. Their working is still like the medium format negative cameras as the lens and the electronic plate chamber is still attached with a bellow in some models and rest have large electronic sensors and a interchangeable lens system. Some camera model are shown below to understand better.

Hasselblad X1D – 50C, Costing nearly 9000 US $ with a 35-70 lens (INR 7 lakh)

Medium Format Camera from Other Brands Pentax, Hasselblad, Fujifilm

Large Format

Hasselblad, Mamiya, LargeSense are the masters of Large Format Camera where a large electronic plate or sensor is present in place of large Negatives. The example of latest large format future ready camera is LargeSense LS911 having an electronic plate of 9×11 inches nearly 3 Gigapixel.

Looking Forward for your comments and queries…

Types of Camera – Roll Film

Roll Film Cameras are basically categorized into 4 types depending on their need and working.

  1. Box Camera
  2. Folding Camera
  3. Reflex Camera
  4. Miniature Camera

1. Box Camera

This is the simplest form of camera, with a lens and two viewfinders to view the portrait and landscape mode separately. These camera came with very few shutter and aperture settings.

2. Folding Camera

These were also the most prevail camera of their time because of the quality and portability they offer. In this type of camera the Lens the the film chamber was connected through a bellow. These camera have compound lens and have a no. of aperture and shutter settings. Their negative or image making medium was as large as 20″ x 24″ negatives or as small as a 35mm film. So, this kind of model is being used for making any size of camera, these camera were used for making photos for big prints also.

3. Reflex Camera

This is a TLR camera. As its name defines that Twin Lens Reflex Camera consist of two lens of same focal length, upper one to view from the viewfinder and lower one to capture the image on the film. These camera were remain in trend for long time and gave birth to Candid photography, which was very easy with TLR Camera as subject was not much aware of the camera. These camera were remain in trend for a long time.

This is a SLR camera. As its name defines that Single Lens Reflex Camera in which the same and the only lens is used to view through the optical view finder and to capture the image on negative film. These camera have more customization of Aperture and shutter speed so used for a long time by professional photographers. The above camera was the latest launched negative camera when digital camera era was started. This Camera lens can be changed as per requirements. These Camera have advanced Shutter and aperture system.

4. Miniature Camera

Miniature camera were the cameras in which the 35mm film is used are called miniature because in the roll film era the 35mm film was very small/miniature as compared to other film and plate size. These were also called the rangefinder camera, Small in size and easy to use just point and shoot. These camera were famous among the hobbyists as there were almost no setting to customize just look into the camera, focus and shoot.

Miniature Spy Camera
Its Size is the 2/3rd of a normal human finger.

These are the spy camera, comes under the miniature category too. these were also having the negative to shoot the image and having a very small sized film rolls but were excellent for spying work and this camera has easy access to any security area as well.

This was all about the roll camera types.

Looking forward for your queries…