Manual Exposure Modes – Av/Tv/P/M

Manual and Automatic Exposure (AE) Modes

On most digital camera mode dials, you’ll find a variety of exposure modes, and are divided into two categories; one is preset modes like – sports, night, landscape, portrait, macro etc; other are the creative modes where the Exposure control is in your hand not on the camera.

Here will discuss about the four creative modes to control exposure as we want.

  1. Aperture priority AE mode (Av)
  2. Shutter priority AE mode (Tv)
  3. Program AE mode (P)
  4. Manual mode (M)

Aperture Priority (Av)

The aperture priority mode enables you to set the f-stop (aperture) and the camera will then automatically adjust the shutter speed to give the correct exposure. This mode is particularly useful in low-light conditions, where you want to set the brightest, widest f-stop in order to get the highest shutter speed and the minimum amount of movement. If more depth of field is needed, you can use a small f-stop to get as much of your picture in focus as possible.

Shutter Priority (Tv)

Using the shutter priority mode, you can set the shutter speed, and the camera will automatically selects the f-stop (aperture) to give the correct exposure. This can be especially useful when you’re shooting action pictures and you want to freeze the motion by setting a high shutter speed. By the same way, if you were photographing a waterfall and you wanted the water to blur, you could set a slow shutter speed and the aperture would adjust accordingly.

Note: These both modes Av and Tv assume that you have enough light to expose your pictures within the range of shutter speeds and apertures you’re using. And if you are not having very proper light or a wide aperture lens then you will have to master the Manual mode and take control of every parameter in your hand.

Program (P)

This setting leaves all the decision-making to the camera. The camera sets a combination of shutter speed and aperture so you don’t have to think about exposure at all. The other fine tune settings are still in your hand but this is moreover an Auto mode from creative zone of mode dial.

In some cameras this may be set up as subject programs such as “portrait,” “sports,” or “landscape.” If there’s not enough (or too much) light to achieve the effect you want then your camera won’t be able to work miracles on this mode. Even on this setting, check the LCD to make sure you are getting the images you want. And remember that you can still use auto exposure compensation to override the camera’s decision.

Manual (M)

This mode allows you to manually set the shutter speed and the aperture independently of each other, referring either to the camera’s built-in exposure meter or to a handheld exposure meter. Professionals prefer to use manual exposure and handheld light meters. Once you will start playing with this mode, you will also enjoy this mode to make some creative photographs. This allows you to take multiple meter readings in various points of the subject frame. In this method the photographer has total control over the pictorial effects that various shutter speed and aperture combinations can achieve. When film was dominant, this method tended to be the exclusive to the professionals or the advanced amateur.

Auto Bracket Settings

Today, the immediate results of digital photography allows you to shoot test frame, have a look, make various adjustment to fine tune the final  output and get the right exposure. Most advanced D-SLR cameras have an auto-bracket setting or the HDR(High Dynamic Range) settings. This clever little feature sets the camera to take three pictures automatically, in rapid succession: one at the “correct exposure,” one overexposed, and one underexposed. I find this very useful when working quickly because I know it will give me a choice of exposures after the fact. By setting the camera to shoot one picture at the “correct” exposure—as the camera sees it—and two frames perhaps one f-stop either side, I’ll always end up with one frame that I consider to be the perfect exposure. You can change the increments of the brackets so that they are 1/3, 1/2, or 2/3 stop to either side of the “correct” exposure, depending on the camera model. On most cameras this facility works on all the automatic settings and in manual mode.

Exposure Compensation

If you find that your images consistently look better by underexposing by one stop, or by overexposing by half a stop, then use the exposure compensation setting to build this factor into the camera’s light metering. This you will come to know when you analyse your pictures on the computer screen that your all the images are over-exposed or under-exposed. So, accordingly you can cheat with the camera’s light meter to get your perfect exposure.

This  facility enables you to under- or overexpose by up to three f-stops or full shutter speeds. This is normally indicated on your camera by a scale from +3 to -3 with one/third stop increments. Most professional photographers I know use the exposure compensation feature to fine-tune the camera’s light meter. When you have time and the subject permits, vary your exposures so you don’t miss an important shot. Check the images on your computer screen and delete all the bad ones before you show anyone your work.

Controlling Light and Exposing Right

In the last post we came to know about What is right exposure and the factors affecting the exposure of a picture. To register a perfect tone image on your digital camera sensor, one must allow the correct amount of light to reach the digital sensor. The three factors that control the path of light are sensor sensitivity (ISO), shutter speed(SS), and aperture(f-stop).

When the film photography was dominant, exposure was an really important subject. The digital era has brought us light-years forward because we can now see the result instantly. Just as with film cameras, the DSLR takes into account the brightness of the frame, the contrast, the color of the picture and the area in focused. When automatic exposure is set, the camera calculates all the settings accordingly and much more instantly.

You can now review your pictures immediately after exposing, on the LCD screen on the back of your digital camera. If you are a beginner to photography, there are many other different aspects that have to be considered before you take each picture. How do I compose the picture? Is it in focus or not? What should be the background? Until all these elements start to become second nature, it’s good to keep your camera on auto-exposure. This will give you one less thing to worry about while you concentrate on all the others parameters. Then gradually, as you become more technically strong and have learned to hold the camera the right way, you’ll start to adjusting the small adjustments that are possible on your camera to get a perfect exposure as per your learning and experience.

On most of the DSLRs and high-end compact digital cameras, you have the option of setting the exposure manually(M-mode). This is time where we begin to play with the camera’s settings to get perfect exposure. Moreover we now start overexposing and underexposing the photograph as per our need.

  1. Camera Sensor Sensitivity(ISO)

In Film photography you need to change films if you want to change the ISO. Eg. If you are shooting at ISO100 film and suddenly the weather changed now you need ISO400 to get your desired image, So you need to change the other film of ISO400.

On the other hand in Digital photography, DSLR allows you to shoot a group of pictures, or even a single picture, at one ISO setting, then change the ISO setting on the same memory card and keep shooting. You can change the ISO as many times as you need.

  • Shutter speeds(SS)

Here are some basics about shutter speeds to begin with:

• If the light is really bad, try not to go below 1/60 second. If you must, hold your camera very still and don’t expect to freeze any action.

• For everyday pictures such as portraits and views, use speeds of 1/60 second to 1/250 second.

• To stop a racing car, or someone riding a bicycle, start with 1/1000 second.

NOTE: To avoid the camera shake, your shutter speed should not be less than the focal length of the lens you are shooting with.

  • Aperture (f-stop)

Here are some basics about Aperture/f-stops to begin with:

• As a general rule, f/5.6 gives a little bit of depth of field, provided the lens focal length isn’t too long, and is still wide enough to enable high shutter speeds.

• If it gets really dark, don’t be afraid to open your aperture to its maximum available aperture, for example, f/1.2 or f/1.8.

• If you need loads of depth of field, or you want a slow shutter speed, stop down to f/11 (when using a short lens) or f/16.

If your picture looks a little bit lighter or darker than it should, take another parameter to adjust the exposure. You can make your image lighter by increasing your exposure, or darker by decreasing the same. NOTE: f/8 can be used as a universal aperture perfect for any genre of photography.

Note: Your most of the lens usually gives the best sharpness at one stop down to the widest aperture available at your lens. eg. Lens with f/1.8 will give its best sharpness at f/2.8 not at f/1.8. anyone can experiment this and visualize the difference.

Top Free Photo Editing Apps

Being a photographer you need some mobile applications which can provide you the freedom of editing like a professional. Earlier it was only possible in a professional computers with pro level editing software which were paid. But now with changing time and improving technology, the professional grade editing of images is possible on your mobile phone and without even spending a single penny. Yes, the apps which we are going to discuss about are free to download and use. There might be some in-app purchases which hardly require. So, there is the details about the apps you need and can use as per your requirements.

Snapseed By Google LLC

Snapseed is a totally free app with very pro level editing tools, including every parameter from brightness/contrast to levels and HDR scape. Snapseed provides a number of presets also. We can adjust depth of field, perspective and even canvas size of any image. There are a lot of tutorials within the app with which you can learn a lot and can apply the same option to other photos as well. You can Open/Edit one photo at a time. Once the changes you have saved that can not be undone if you have closed the image or clicked done. Snapseed provides a very unique feature of masking with any adjustment layer you want to apply on. Snapseed itself is a complete package for professional grade editing in your mobile phone and its totally free.

Android Snapseed will edit DNG RAW files on any device that can capture DNG, And iOS Snapseed will edit RAW files from a no. of devices.

This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

Adobe Photoshop Express by Adobe

Adobe Photoshop Express:Photo Editor Collage Maker is again a totally free app which provide all the professional grade photo editing tools. Photoshop Express delivers a full spectrum of tools and effects at your fingertips. Personalize your experiences with sticker makers, enhance color gradients and imagery, create pic collages, generate memes, make quick fixes and heighten your share-worthy moments. Features like Perspective Correction, Noise Reduction, Blur, Customize images with the sticker maker, create memes and captions, style your text with a wide array of fonts and layouts, add borders and frames, and stamp creations with custom watermarks. Dehaze pictures to remove fog in a scene, apply dramatic filters for pictures, and easily slide to adjust color temperature, vibrance and other color effects. Making picture collages, spot healing and automatically adjust contrast, exposure and more with one-touch adjustments; easily crop, straighten, rotate for eye-catching layouts, and magically remove red-eye and pet-eye from your favorite moments.
Upload images from multiple sources and formats (including raw and TIFF), posting your favorites directly to Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Flickr and other social platforms or share them in email, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, and Line to inspire others.

This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

PicsArt Photo Editor by PicsArt

PicsArt Photo Editor is home to the hugely popular sketch effect, glitch effect, vintage filters, aesthetic stickers, and more. AND it’s FREE (In-app Purchase or Upgrade option available)
Show off your awesome pictures on Instagram with #picsart and you might be featured!

Provides amazing tools for cropping, stretching, and cloning. A full library of artistic photo filters (including HDR), frames, backgrounds, and borders. Use brush mode for fine-tuning and make double exposures using layers with adjustable transparency. 100+ fonts. Some of our coolest photo features are now enabled for video. Bring your unique story to life by adding fun filters and stickers, then adjusting the size for social media. No professional experience required!
Take any selfie and create a sketch that looks hand drawn.
PicsArt’s Gold subscription gives you access to many more premium stickers, fonts, frames, collages and masks. PicsArt’s Cutout Tool lets you create and share custom Stickers out of any picture. PicsArt Draw includes customizable brushes, layers, and professional drawing tools.
PicsArt’s Challenges are fun and easy! New challenges, added daily, are a great way to find inspiration.

This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

by 123rf Limited

Pixlr (formerly Pixlr Express) is a free and easy photo editor. No account creation required, just download and start editing.
Show your awesome edits, #madewithpixlr for a chance to be featured on Instagram.
Create photo collages, adjust the color, make pencil sketch, poster, watercolor and more. Double Exposure to create an array of effects easily with layers and adjustable transparency. Remove blemishes, red-eye, smoothen skin, or whiten teeth with simple tools. Adjust the tone of the photo with overlays – amplify the tone, cool it down, or add surreal shades. Add text to your photos with a variety of fonts, choose borders. Keep track of your favourite effects and overlays with the favourite button. Crop and resize images quickly and easily before saving.
This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

by Everimaging Limited

Fotor is an all-in-one photo editing and image licensing platform where amateur and professional photographers can monetize on their shots through Fotor “Events”. Gain exposure and be rewarded with Events, introducing weekly photo contests hosted by Fotor. Fotor allows the enthusiast of all levels the opportunity to win prizes, profits and fame.

Fotor photo editor enables an easy-to-use while professional image processing experience. A massive range of updated Photo effects and filters, allowing you to simulate an almost unlimited number of styles, including: Film, Vintage, B&W, Kaleidoscope, etc. Up to 10 completely customizable ‘Edit’ functions, Fotor photo editor allows you to all forms of editing, from minute ‘touch ups’ to extensive images changes. The ‘Enhance’ function, complete with ‘slide on screen’ capability, allows for rapid adjustments in in details and gradation. Different photo collage template styles such as Classic & Magazine collage templates, making your images into art by collage way. Regular updates for stickers, borders for pictures, photo stitch, photo frames, photo filters and fonts will ensure a fresh new design for every day.

Licensing your photos to PxBee which is a stock photo marketplace connecting the creative community of Fotor. Join PxBee and start making money through your photos. Providing breathtaking photographs, licensed for use in multiple projects such as web design, printed materials and commercial displays.
This app is available for both the platforms Andriod and iOS (iPhone/iPad).

Photo Editor Pro
by InShot Inc.

Photo Editor Pro offers everything you want to edit pictures. A host of stylish effects, filters, grids and draw tools help you create an eye-catcher, even if you’ve never edited a photo before. With Photo Editor Pro, you can directly post your artworks to Instagram, Whatsapp, Facebook etc. Filters like Lomo, PINK, Vignette, Natural, Warm, Dew, Dark, CocoaAdjust brightness, contrast, saturation, hue, warmth etc. Glitch Effects & Blur Background, Photo Blender & Light FX, Body Retouch, Photo Collage Maker, Highlight and shadow, and many more to edit. This is a complete package of editing tools you can play with. So download and start editing and sharing some wonderful edits.

This app is available for Android Only.

Photo Editor, Filters & Effects, Presets – Lumii
by InShot Inc.

Lumii, as a powerful photo editor pro, values simplicity and practicality the most. Just simple and fast touches, you can create artistic high quality works without any professional skills. It offers all the advanced photo editor tools and amazing preset photo filters and photo effects to edit pictures, enhance images. No matter you are a newbie or pro, Lumii will be your best edit pictures app among plenty of similar photo maker and presets apps. Apply perfect presets for Instagram and filters for pictures to fill your aesthetic needs. Lumii is Free and all-in-one Photo Editor App.

Lumii features Customize Photo Filters, Customize Photo Effects – such as Glitch, Light Leak, Double Exposure, adjustment for photo effects strength, HSL Color Mode, supports 8 colors channels, Powerful curves tools.

Adjust brightness, contrast, highlights, warmth, shadows, sharpness, exposure, image enhancement, crop photo freely (in multi aspect ratios), add text on photo. Lumii helps you become an expert in photo editing, especially in photo filters and effects adjustment, and discover endless fun during the time. The app is available for Android only.

This was all about free pro level photo editing app, We hope this helps you a lot to choose the perfect image editing app that suits your style. These are not fancy apps, these provide all the tools which are very useful for photographers.

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Types of Camera – Digital

There are various types of digital camera we found in the digital era. We tried to cover all the possible categories of the digital camera available in the market now.

Compact Digital Camera

This category consists a lot of camera forms. These are the cheapest camera available in the market. Digital compacts camera are very pocket friendly cameras and used widely by the hobbyists and amateurs. These camera have many other forms as well. Our Mobile phone Camera is an example of compact or point & shoot camera system. Although now a days the Mobile phones are having more advanced camera system than a digital compact camera. Moreover, all the small water proof and action camera are also an example of Compact Digital Camera System which are now having a lot of customized settings electronically not mechanically.

Bridge Camera is also a type of compact digital camera system with a lot more manual settings and a very high Optical zoom system. These camera look like a DSLR but do not have the capability of inter-changeable lens system.

All the tiny spy camera are also in the category of Digital Compact camera.

Mirror-less Interchangeable Lens Cameras

Basically these camera are the advanced form of point and shoot camera but with the professional interface and settings. These camera are Cost reductive forms of DSLR camera system. These are cost effective for Manufacturers only but are expensive for consumers having some pros and cons over DSLR system and are now trending the market for some more time. Because the DSLR system have more advantages over mirror-less system. These camera have less battery life as they consume battery for every function(electronic viewfinders – consume a lot of battery, a person can’t even see the optical view unlike DSLR’s view finder)whereas the DSLR are saving a lot of battery due to optical view finders, and DSLR gives more power to capture more on a single charge (Gives upto 1000 shot per charged battery).

DSLR – Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera

DSLR as their name suggests these are the camera like SLR system cameras, just addition of word “digital” is here. Unlike SLR camera, all other functions will remain same only the traditional film is replaced by Electronic sensor on which image is being captured and processed in camera to show a final result immediately on an LCD on the back of the camera. These are a bit expensive camera but having so many qualities also. DSLR gives freedom to change the Lenses as per need and a variety of lens are available in the market to suits an individuals requirements. DSLR gives High quality images. These shoot two forms of file system – JPEG (Compressed file) & RAW/.CR2 (A complete data file with maximum details possible – can be customised a lot in post processing like the traditional photography post processed in Dark room)

DSLR gave a revolution in the field of photography as the results can be seen on the spot of capturing an image, so these camera gave freedom of experimenting with the same frame and same composition in the field only. With all the benefits these camera gave birth to a huge data files which again results into more expenses of managing data files. But still this is the most accepted camera system by professionals and now a days by the hobbyists also as the Entry level DSLR are available in the market under US$ 400 or INR 30K with 2 lens combinations. The professional DSLR cost starting from 1.5 lakhs to upto 8 lakhs.

Medium Format Camera

Brands like Mamiya, Leica, Hasselblad, Horseman, Pentax, Fuji make these format camera and are totally used for commercial purpose only. Big ad agencies and corporates have these camera because of their work profile. Their working is still like the medium format negative cameras as the lens and the electronic plate chamber is still attached with a bellow in some models and rest have large electronic sensors and a interchangeable lens system. Some camera model are shown below to understand better.

Hasselblad X1D – 50C, Costing nearly 9000 US $ with a 35-70 lens (INR 7 lakh)

Medium Format Camera from Other Brands Pentax, Hasselblad, Fujifilm

Large Format

Hasselblad, Mamiya, LargeSense are the masters of Large Format Camera where a large electronic plate or sensor is present in place of large Negatives. The example of latest large format future ready camera is LargeSense LS911 having an electronic plate of 9×11 inches nearly 3 Gigapixel.

Looking Forward for your comments and queries…

Types of Camera – Roll Film

Roll Film Cameras are basically categorized into 4 types depending on their need and working.

  1. Box Camera
  2. Folding Camera
  3. Reflex Camera
  4. Miniature Camera

1. Box Camera

This is the simplest form of camera, with a lens and two viewfinders to view the portrait and landscape mode separately. These camera came with very few shutter and aperture settings.

2. Folding Camera

These were also the most prevail camera of their time because of the quality and portability they offer. In this type of camera the Lens the the film chamber was connected through a bellow. These camera have compound lens and have a no. of aperture and shutter settings. Their negative or image making medium was as large as 20″ x 24″ negatives or as small as a 35mm film. So, this kind of model is being used for making any size of camera, these camera were used for making photos for big prints also.

3. Reflex Camera

This is a TLR camera. As its name defines that Twin Lens Reflex Camera consist of two lens of same focal length, upper one to view from the viewfinder and lower one to capture the image on the film. These camera were remain in trend for long time and gave birth to Candid photography, which was very easy with TLR Camera as subject was not much aware of the camera. These camera were remain in trend for a long time.

This is a SLR camera. As its name defines that Single Lens Reflex Camera in which the same and the only lens is used to view through the optical view finder and to capture the image on negative film. These camera have more customization of Aperture and shutter speed so used for a long time by professional photographers. The above camera was the latest launched negative camera when digital camera era was started. This Camera lens can be changed as per requirements. These Camera have advanced Shutter and aperture system.

4. Miniature Camera

Miniature camera were the cameras in which the 35mm film is used are called miniature because in the roll film era the 35mm film was very small/miniature as compared to other film and plate size. These were also called the rangefinder camera, Small in size and easy to use just point and shoot. These camera were famous among the hobbyists as there were almost no setting to customize just look into the camera, focus and shoot.

Miniature Spy Camera
Its Size is the 2/3rd of a normal human finger.

These are the spy camera, comes under the miniature category too. these were also having the negative to shoot the image and having a very small sized film rolls but were excellent for spying work and this camera has easy access to any security area as well.

This was all about the roll camera types.

Looking forward for your queries…

Photography – Introduction

‘Photo’ means “Light” & ‘Graphy’ means “Writing or Drawing”, So, ‘Photography’ means “Writing or Drawing with Light”.

Photography is an art form in which light is a medium through which an artist can paint on canvas of roll film or an electronic sensor. With a light tight box photographs can be taken if this box has a lens, Shutter and a film chamber {used to place a light sensitive material on which image is formed}. These three parts are called the principal parts of a camera.

  • Camera Obscura – dark room with a pin hole, this is the simplest form and the basic principle of a camera and generating image.

Aperture, Shutter & ISO

These three factors are the main form factor of a photograph. In other words the exposure of a photograph is controlled with these three – aperture, shutter & ISO.

Aperture is basically the opening in the lens through which light reaches to the medium(negative roll frame). Aperture is denoted by “f no.” which is denoted by 1:(f no.). eg. we have a 50mm lens with f no. 1.8 then it will be denoted on lens as “1 : 1.8”. The Larger the f no. the smaller the opening, and smaller the the larger the opening. Aperture at f 1.2 has the larger opening when compared to f 4, 5.6, 8 or greater. This can be better understood with the help of an image.

Aperture is also used to control depth of field

Smaller f no. = shallow depth of field (Blur background)

Larger f no. = sharper depth of field (Sharper background)

Shutter is the mechanism by which the time of light going into the camera is controlled. It is placed just before the Negative film or the Electronic image sensor. Shutter works with two curtains, the first one goes up and then second will follow that depending upon camera shutter speed.

Shutter speed is also used to show the moment of subject in a photo.

Higher the shutter speed = Motion freeze

Lower the shutter speed = Motion live

ISO. After many innovations took place and the negative system was more developed the concept of film speed was also came into trend. The film speed was denoted by ASA or ISO both the terms were used in traditional photography films but now is digital era ISO is used only. ASA or ISO denotes the ability of a film to capture the light faster or slower. Films are available from ISO 50 to ISO 400 in the market. These are used as per requirement of the light where a photograph will be taken or a ISO100 or ISO200 film can be purchased to solve all the purpose and rest will be controlled with shutter speed and aperture.

So these three factors are very important to take a perfect exposure of a photograph or the exposure can be controlled with these free factors. a image will be shown describing the relationship between Aperture, Shutter and ISO.

To shoot a stunning image we are to master this combination of these three basic factors of photography. So Start using the Creative Modes on your Camera Dial which we will explain shortly.

You now able to understand the basic terms used in photography and familiar to their function also, Now we will guide you in near future posts to use the camera to take stunning photographs.

Looking forward for your queries…..

Brief History of Photography – 2

There were various processed invented to get a color photograph. some of those techniques with example are described below.

The first color photograph made by the ‘Three-color method’ suggested by James Clerk Maxwell in 1855, and is taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861. The subject is a coloured ribbon, usually described as a tartan ribbon.

The whole system of taking photographs was then being change with time and various processes were discovered to get the good quality photo, so as now, with time the digital photography techniques are also changing with time in race of capturing better photographs.

Some processed which were being used to generate first color photographs are explained below.

1. The Three-color process

The above photograph is of The Emir of Bukhara, Alim Khan, taken in 1911 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, a Russian Chemist and Photographer. On the right side there is triple color-filtered black-and-white glass plate, shown as a positive on the left side. In each slide it can be observed that the first slide is of red filter, second is of green and third one is of blue, and can be compared with the final output as well. eg. the color of the cloth is blue which is darkest in the third slide(Blue slide) and lightest in the first slide(Red slide).

2. The Substractive Color method

An 1877 color photographic print on paper by Louis Ducos du Hauron, the foremost early French pioneer of color photography. The overlapping yellow, cyan and red as subtractive color elements are apparent.

In photography, the dye colors are normally cyan(absorbs red), magenta(absorbs green) and yellow(absorbs blue). When the three dye images are superimposed they form a complete color image.

Note: All the printing work done on principle of CMYK Color Model. (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow & K-Black). And all the digital (eg. phone screen, monitors, TV’s) work on RGB Color Model (Red, Green, Blue)

3. Additive Color Method

Mixing colored lights (usually red, green and blue) in various proportions is the additive method of color reproduction. LCD, LED, plasma and CRT (picture tube) color video displays all use this method. Any digital image on a display is the best example of this method. as with time there are digital photo frames also which look like the printed photos placed on a corner table.

New 7 Wonders of World(2000-07), Taj Mahal, India

The above image is the first color image taken of The Taj Mahal in 1914, which was later published in National Geography Magazine in 1921 issue.


As we came to know about that the techniques of generating photographs is changing with time, but the art of capturing and aesthetics and perspective will always remain dependent on an artist and his vision.

Looking forward for your queries and comments.

Brief History of Photography – 1

The First Permanent Photograph (Circa, 1826)

View from a window is the above photograph. This above image was the first successful permanent Photograph taken by French inventor Joseph Nicephore Niepce in 1826. This photo was taken with a Camera Obscura focused on a sheet of 20 x 25cm oil-treated bitumen(a petroleum derivative). This above picture was taken in 8 hour exposure, sunlight illuminated the buildings on both sides.

The discovery of Photography was not an overnight miracle, it was the collection of efforts being made from centuries by some eminent people working independently. The history claims that there were some photographer and photographs being made from 4th century B.C. some more prevalent proofs are of 16th and 17th century but the artists couldn’t get those photographs permanent and those techniques documented.

Photography gets completed with two steps, one is taking the image and other is fixing the image on a medium where it can be kept for record. Johann Heinrich Schulze, in 19th century discovered that the silver nitrate darkened upon exposure to light, which results in production of Photogram. These photograms were made by placing objects on paper soaked in silver nitrate and exposed to light. However, this image does not last for long on paper.

It was Aristotle who in 4th Century B.C. observed, that a narrow beam of light entering a dark-room projected an inverted image of an outside object. In 1490 A.D. Leonardo da Vinci realized that it could be used for accurate draught(drawing) and perspective. Principally a group of four man in the 19th century contributed more to the above said basic principals of photography. Those were…

Joseph Nicephone Niepce, a French Physicist, made first photograph on metal in 1826 which was called Heliograph.

Niepce in association with Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, a French Painter, who invented a method of making direct positive image on silver coated copper plate – known as Dauguerreotype. His method was taken by French Government and made public on 19th August 1839.

Now 19th August is celebrated as World Photography Day.

An English scientist, William Henry Fox Talbot, had also evolved a method of making a negative from which numerous positive copies could be made. He invented he salted paper and Calotype Processes. He had also found out a method of fixing images, but could not announce his work in time.

In 1819, Sir John Herschel discovered the suitability of Hyposulphite of soda (Hypo) as fixing agent of the sensitized paper images.

Photography became more famous and affordable when in 1888, when Goerge Eastman introduced film roll and a simple Kodak box camera. As basic concept was clear and made public now more experiments were carried out and with time camera & lenses get more precise. The Dark room Processes also became more precise, adding depth and sharpness to photographic prints.

Looking forward for your queries and comments below in comment section.


The Journey Begins

Thanks for joining us.

Welcome you on new journey of learning Photography techniques to stand alone in the crowd, You will get very unique content and your queries solved with us.

Meanwhile you will also enjoy some photo tours and along with description of the photo with special emphasize on Photography and story of that particular image content.

Looking for your response…